History of Antiques

Antiques, Styles & Influences Through The Ages

1150 - 1550
British Monarchs - Henry II (1154-89) Richard I (1189-99) John (1199-1216)
Henry III (1216-72) Edward I (1272-1307) Edward II (1307-27)
Edward III (1327-77) Richard II (1377-99) Henry IV (1399-1413)
Henry V (1413-22) Henry VI (1422-61, 1470-1)
Edward IV (1461-70, 1471-83) Edward V (1483) Richard III (1483-85)
Henry VII Tudor (1485-1509) Henry VIII (1509-47) Edward VI (1547-53)
Lady Jane Grey (1553) Mary I (1553-58) Elizabeth I (1558-1603)

Medieval, Gothic & Early Furniture
 
Furniture of the Gothic style originates from the 12th century when the Romanesque architecture which was adopted by the Saxons and Normans gave way to the highly decorated Gothic architectural style.


The architecture clearly visible in the great cathedrals and churches built at that time was also reflected in the design of furniture and their fittings.  This style is characterised by three important elements. Firstly, the appearance of solidity achieved largely by the use of thick and wide boards. Secondly, the use of tracery - a decorative style copied from stone  masons who were constructing the windows of ecclesiastical buildings.Thirdly, the use of decorative iron straps and hinges.  

Much of the of Gothic furniture that survives today is housed in churches and cathedrals. Secular furniture of the Gothic period has not survived well and what we can see in museums, stately homes and private collections is a small percentage of the wealth of secular furniture that once existed.
 
It is true to say that a great deal of the secular furniture of the Gothic period was utilitarian and as such was likely to have been minimally decorated if decorated at all. However evidence from illustrated manuscripts of the period as well as surviving furniture,  shows that the higher status secular home was furnished as richly as their ecclesiastical counterpart.

The wealthy medieval home of the 12th-15th centuries had a much smaller range of furniture compared with a home in the 21st Century. Tables were mostly of the trestle type with a removable board top and sometimes richly carved trestles, only towards the end of the 15th Century were tables joined. Most people sat on benches or stools, only the most important within an extended family were seated on throne like arm chairs. Belongings were kept in chests and boxes of all sizes shapes and types of construction. Food was kept in aumbry cupboards. These were like cupboards today but with narrower doors, which, along with the front panels, had carved open tracery behind which was richly stained linen to keep flies out. Houses were also decorated with carved panels, screens, posts and beams.

Nailing and occasionally joining together thick and wide oak boards was the main way to construct furniture in the 12th to 15th Centuries. Panelling, the joining of a sturdy frame that held loose panels within it, became a  method of furniture manufacture from around 1450 onwards though had previously been used for fixed architectural elements and can be seen as the major construction technique in screen work of the 14th and 15th Centuries in ecclesiastical context.

Panelled construction allowed larger and often decorated boards within a piece of furniture to remain unfixed to the frame. Such panels could expand and shrink slightly according to the moisture content of the air, which prevented them splitting - a fate panels were prone to when fixed in place  in boarded furniture.

Boarded furniture was more common in the medieval period but is an inherently weak form of construction - a problem solved by the blacksmiths. Boarded furniture is normally nailed together but to further hold the boards in place, and to prevent them splitting, iron straps were bound around the nailed boards. In many cases these straps became highly decorative and formed part of the 'Gothic style'.

While the Renaissance period is exceedingly complex we can identify some distinct phases in antique oak renaissance furniture. The Renaissance, meaning rebirth, was an intellectual and artistic movement. Antique oak furniture is the premier source in UK for Gothic Revival and Renaissance Revival furniture. Furniture of the Gothic style has its origins in the 12th century when the Romanesque architecture adopted by the Saxons and Normans gave way to the richly decorated Gothic architectural style. The architecture visible in the great cathedrals and churches built at that time was also reflected in the design of furniture and fittings - a style that is characterised by three important elements Gothic Furniture took on the same embellishments as the dominant structures of the 17 th and 18 th Centuries. What we know of Gothic style furniture though is based largely on what has survived in churches and cathedrals. Secular furniture of the period has not survived so well and what we can see in museums and stately homes is a small percentage of the wealth of secular furniture that once existed. We emphasise the use of green oak in carving, the use of hand tools and traditional finishing techniques backed up by extensive historical research into gothic carving and design. Antique Gothic furniture was mostly made from oak, although local softwoods were also used towards the end of the period. Medieval Gothic style furniture was heavily carved and decorated. Gothic furniture craft paved the way for the Renaissance period to follow, and many new items of furniture appeared at this time.

The artefacts we currently have for sale are divided in 2 main categories:
Artefacts, Medieval Specials Artefacts. Artefacts are divided in 9 periods such as Neolithic, Ancient, Egyptian, Roman/Celtic, Byzantine, Dark Ages (Viking, Saxon, Norman, Frankish, Merovingian, Ostrogoth, German Migration), Medieval, post-Medieval, various Collectibles.

Medieval Specials is divided in 5 categories and features some of our best medieval artefacts: Collection Medieval seal matrices, Various Medieval pewter artefacts, Pewter pilgrims badges, Pewter erotic badges and medieval pottery.

Antique Tester Bed is a canopy, and tester beds, or 'testers' A are popularly known as four-posters.

1550-1560
British Monarch -  Elizabeth I (since 1558)
Royal Period in Britain -  Tudor (since 1485)
Antique Period -  In England: Tudor or Elizabethan,  In France: Renaissance, In America: Early Colonial
Furniture Period -  Elizabethan
Design Influence -  Renaissance, Gothic (12th century): Lancet arch, ribbed vault with predominant motif, scrolled foliage, framed panels with figure, animal or heraldic device treated in stylized form.
Timbers -  Oak: solid, primary wood for furniture
Design Introductions (Approximate) -  Coffer (circa 1400), Tester: four poster bed (circa 1400),  Cupboard (circa 1400)
Decoration Details -  Linenfold: carved panel resembling linen with tight folds
 
1560-1570
British Monarch -   Elizabeth I
Royal Period in Britain -   Tudor Antique Period
·  In England: Tudor or Elizabethan
·  In France: Renaissance
·  In America: Early Colonial
Furniture Period -   Elizabethan
Design Influence -  Renaissance and   Gothic
Timbers -  Oak
 
Design Introductions (Approximate)
·  Settle: long bench with high back
·  Armoire: cupboard
Other Materials -   Mortise and tenon joint: held by peg or dowel
Decoration Details -   Caryatid: column in form of a human figure
 
 
1580-1590
British Monarch -   Elizabeth I
Royal Period in Britain -   Tudor
Antique Period
·  In England: Tudor or Elizabethan
·  In France: Renaissance
·  In America: Early Colonial
Furniture Period -   Elizabethan
Furniture Makers and Designers -   Inigo Jones
Design Influence -   Renaissance and   Gothic
Timbers - Oak and   Walnut
Design Introductions (Approximate) - Court cupboard

1570-1580
British Monarch -   Elizabeth I
Royal Period in Britain -   Tudor
Antique Period
·  In England: Tudor or Elizabethan
·  In France: Renaissance
·  In America: Early Colonial
Furniture Period -   Elizabethan
Furniture Makers and Designers -   Inigo Jones: UK architect and designer
Design Influence
·  Renaissance
·  Gothic
Timbers -   Oak
Decoration Details -   Romayne work: carved profile head on a medallion
 
1590-1600
British Monarch -   Elizabeth I
Royal Period in Britain -   Tudor
Antique Period
·  In England: Tudor or Elizabethan
·  In France: Renaissance
·  In America: Early Colonial
Furniture Period -   Elizabethan
Furniture Makers and Designers -  Inigo Jones
Design Influence -   Renaissance  and   Gothic
Timbers -   Oak  and   Walnut
Design Introductions (Approximate) -   Buffet
Decoration Details -   Nonsuch inlay: inlay decoration representing a
building
 
1600-1610
British Monarch -   Elizabeth I then   James I (since 1603)
Royal Period in Britain -   Tudor  and   Stuart (since 1603)
Antique Period
·  In England: Jacobean
·  In France: Renaissance
·  In America: Early Colonial
Furniture Period -   Elizabethan
Furniture Makers and Designers -   Inigo Jones
Design Influence -   Renaissance  and   Gothic
Timbers -   Cherry: used in America and England,  Oak  and  Walnut
Design Introductions (Approximate) -   Refectory table,  Drawer leaf refectory table
Decoration Details -   Arcading: arches on furniture backs and panels
 
1610-1620
British Monarch -   James I
Royal Period in Britain -   Stuart
Antique Period
·  In England: Jacobean
·  In France: Louis XIII
·  In America: Early Colonial
Furniture Period -   Elizabethan
Furniture Makers and Designers -   Inigo Jones
Design Influence -   Renaissance ,  Gothic
Timbers -   Cherry  and   Oak
Design Introductions (Approximate) -   Carver chair: Dutch  &  Farthingale
chair: probably made for women wearing a farthingale or hooped skirt
Other Materials -   Papier Mache: brought to France from China
 
1620-1630
British Monarch -   James I &  Charles I (since 1625)
Royal Period in Britain -   Stuart
Antique Period
·  In England: Carolean
·  In France: Louis XIII
·  In America: Early Colonial
Furniture Period -   Elizabethan
Furniture Makers and Designers -   Inigo Jones
Design Influence -   Renaissance &  Baroque: extensive ornamentation, heavy
and rectilineal shapes
Timbers -   Cherry,  Oak
Design Introductions (Approximate)
·  Gate leg table
·  Dining chairs
·  Conneticut chest
 
 
1630-1640
British Monarch -   Charles I
Royal Period in Britain -   Stuart
Antique Period
·  In England: Carolean
·  In France: Louis XIII
·  In America:
Early Colonial
 Furniture Period -   Elizabethan
 Furniture Makers and Designers -   Inigo Jones
 Design Influence -   Renaissance  &   Baroque
 Timbers -   Beech: used for framing of upholstered furniture: can be tacked
without splitting.  Cherry and  Oak
 Decoration Details -   Lunettes or Lozenges: crescent or diamond shaped
design on flat furniture surfaces
 
 
1640-1650
British Monarch -   Charles I  Commonwealth (since 1649)
 Royal Period in Britain -   Stuart
 Antique Period
·  In England: Cromwellian
·  In France: Louis XIV (since 1643)
·  In America: Early Colonial
 Furniture Period -   Elizabethan
 Furniture Makers and Designers
·  Inigo Jones
·  Andre C. Boulle: furniture maker to Louis XIV in France
·  Grinling Gibbons: UK master carver
 Design Influence -   Renaissance, Baroque
 Timbers -  Beech, Cherry, Oak
 Design Introductions (Approximate) -  Jointed stool, Folding X frame stool:
French,  Bible box Other Materials -  Locks of cast iron
 Decoration Details -   Boulle work: marquetry in brass, tortoiseshell and
other metal or material
 
 
1650-1660
British Monarch -   Commonwealth
 Royal Period in Britain -   Stuart
 Antique Period
·  In England: Cromwellian
·  In France: Louis XIV
·  In America: Early Colonial
 Furniture Period -   Elizabethan
 Furniture Makers and Designers
·  Inigo Jones
·  Andre C. Boulle
·  Grinling Gibbons
 Design Influence
·  Renaissance
·  Baroque
·  Chinoiserie: Western adaptation of Chinese shapes and motifs fostered by
East India companies shipping to Europe
 Timbers -  Beech, Cherry, Oak
 Design Introductions (Approximate)
·  Chest of drawers
·  Longcase clock: informal "Grandfather" clock
·  Brewster chair: America
 
 
1660-1670
British Monarch -   Charles II (since 1660)
 Medieval Gothic Furniture -   Stuart
 Antique Period
·  In England: Restoration
·  In France: Louis XIV
·  In America: Early Colonial
 Furniture Period -   Elizabethan
 Furniture Makers and Designers
·  Andre C. Boulle
·  Grinling Gibbons
·  Burrough and Farmbouroug: UK
·  Daniel Marot: French ebeniste employed at Hampton Court, UK
 Design Influence -   Renaissance, Baroque, Chinoiserie
 Timbers -  Beech, Cherry, Mahogany: used only as ballast in ships, Oak,
Walnut: solid
 Design Introductions (Approximate) -  Bookcase, Mirrors
 Other Materials -   Lacque, Gilding
 
 
1670-1680
British Monarch -  Charles II
Royal Period in Britain -   Stuart
 Antique Period
·  In England: Restoration
·  In France: Louis XIV
·  In America: Early Colonial
 Furniture Period -  Elizabethan
 Furniture Makers and Designers
·  Andre C. Boulle
·  Grinling Gibbons
·  Burrough and Farmbouroug
·  Daniel Marot
 Design Influence -   Renaissance, Baroque, Chinoiserie
 Timbers - Beech, Cherry, Mahogany, Oak: secondary wood for furniture,
sometimes used as a veneer on pine, Walnut
 Design Introductions (Approximate) -   Side table, Cane chair
 Other Materials -  Lacquer, Gilding
 Decoration Details -  Marquetry in walnut: various inlayed woods, ivory,
bone etc. to form a pattern and fixed to a furniture surface
 
 
1680-1690
British Monarch  Charles II   James II (since 1685)  William and Mary (since
1688)
 Royal Period in Britain -  Stuart ,  William and Mary (since 1688)
 Antique Period
·  In England: William and Mary
·  In France: Louis XIV
·  In America: William and Mary (since 1688)
 Furniture Period -   Elizabethan
 Furniture Makers and Designers
·  Andre C. Boulle
·  Grinling Gibbons
·  Burrough and Farmbouroug
·  Daniel Marot
·  William Kent: UK designer
·  Garret Johnson: UK furniture maker
 Design Influence -  Baroque, Chinoiserie
 Timbers - Beech, Cherry, Mahogany, Oak, Walnut
 Design Introductions (Approximate)
·  Barometer
·  Card table
·  Kneehole desk
·  Armchair
·  Wainscot chair
 Other Materials -  Lacquer, Gilding
Decoration Details - Cross banding, Dovetail joint
 
 
1690-1700
British Monarch -  William and Mary, William III (since 1694)
 Royal Period in Britain - William and Mary
 Antique Period
·  In England: William III
·  In France: Louis XIV
·  In America: Dutch Colonial
 Furniture Period - Marot
 Furniture Makers and Designers
·  Andre C. Boulle
·  Grinling Gibbons
·  Daniel Marot
·  William Kent
·  Garret Johnson
·  Jacques Dubois: French ebeniste
 Design Influence
·  Chinoiserie
·  Baroque
·  Rococo: elaborate but graceful ornamentation based on shapes of rock,
shell, floral and leaves
 Timbers - Beech, Cherry, Mahogany, Oak, WalnutS.mostly veneer to take
advantage of the attractive grain
 Design Introductions (Approximate) - Bureau
 Other Materials - Lacquer, Locks in steel or brass
 
 
1700-1710
British Monarch - William and Mary, Anne (since 1702)
 Royal Period in Britain - William and Mary, Queen Anne (since 1702)
 Antique Period
·  In England: Anne
·  In France: Louis XIV
·  In America: Queen Anne (since 1702)
 Furniture Period -  Marot
 Furniture Makers and Designers
·  Andre C. Boulle
·  Grinling Gibbons
·  Daniel Marot
·  William Kent
·  Garret Johnson
·  Jacques Dubois
·  Gillows furniture makers: UK
 Design Influence -Baroque, Rococo, Simplicity: a return to plain simple
design from the elaborate ornamentation
 Timbers - Ash: solid, Beech, Cherry, Chestnut: French provincial, Kingwood
and Tulipwood: veneer, used by French cabinet makers, Mahogany, Oak,
Satinwood: veneer, used by English cabinet makers, Walnut,Yew: English
provincial
 Design Introductions (Approximate) -Tallboy, Display cabinet, Corner chair
 Other Materials - Lacquer
Decoration Details - Dentil motif
 
 
1710-1720
British Monarch - Anne, George I (since 1714)
 Royal Period in Britain - Queen Anne, Georgian (since 1714)
 Antique Period
·  In England: Georgian
·  In France: Regancy (since 1715)
·  In America: Queen Anne
 Furniture Period - Marot
 Furniture Makers and Designers
·  Andre C. Boulle
·  Grinling Gibbons
·  Daniel Marot
·  William Kent
·  Garret Johnson
·  Jacques Dubois
·  Gillows furniture makers
·  Thomas Chippendale: UK
·  Thomas Elfe: American furniture maker
·  J. Baumhauer: French ebeniste
 Design Influence - Rococo, Simplicity
 Timbers - Ash, Beech, Cherry, Chestnut, Kingwood and Tulipwood, Mahogany,
Oak, Satinwood, Walnut, Yew
 Design Introductions (Approximate) - Wing armchair, Bookcase
 
Medieval Gothic Furniture - Lacquer, Gilding, Screw
 Decoration Details - Fielded panels
 
 
1720-1730
British Monarch - George I, George II (since 1727)
 Royal Period in Britain - Georgian
 Antique Period
·  In England: Georgian
·  In France: Louis XV (since 1723)
·  In America: Early Georgian (since 1727)
 Furniture Period -  Kent
 Furniture Makers and Designers
·  Andre C. Boulle
·  Daniel Marot
·  William Kent
·  Jacques Dubois
·  Gillows furniture makers
·  Thomas Chippendale
·  Thomas Elfe
·  J. Baumhauer
·  George Seddon: UK cabinet maker
·  Townsend-Goddard: America
 Design Influence - Rococo
 Timbers - Ash, Beech, Cherry, Chestnut, Kingwood and Tulipwood, Mahogany,
Oak, Satinwood, Walnut, Yew
 Design Introductions (Approximate) - Cabriole-leg chair, Partners desk,
Commode: French
 Other Materials - Gilding, Wood caster held by iron plate
 Decoration Details
·  Bow front: curved front
·  Cockbead drawers: curved edge moulding applied to drawers
·  Bonnet top: broken arch pediment
 
1730-1740
British Monarch -  George II
 Royal Period in Britain -  Georgian
 Antique Period -In England: Georgian, In France: Louis XV, In America:
Early Georgian
 Furniture Period -   Kent
 Furniture Makers and Designers -  Daniel Marot, William Kent, Jacques
Dubois, Gillows furniture makers, Thomas Chippendale, Thomas Elfe, J.
Baumhauer, George Seddon, Townsend-Goddard, Georges Jacob: French ebeniste,
Renee Dubois: Frence ebeniste
 Design Influence - Rococo
 Timbers-  Ash, Beech, Cherry, Chestnut, Kingwood and Tulipwood, Mahogany:
solid and veneer, Oak, Satinwood, Walnut, Yew
 Design Introductions (Approximate) -  Dresser, Drop leaf table, Pembroke
table, Dumb waiter, Lowboy: America, Games table, Deception table: similar
to a Pembroke table with hidden shelf, Canape: French sofa
 Other Materials - Wood caster held by iron plate
 Decoration Details  Architectural cornices: projecting moulding at top of a
cupboard,  "Greek" key pattern: a pattern of lines at right angles
 
 
1740-1750
British Monarch -  George II
 Royal Period in Britain -  Georgian
 Antique Period
·  In England: Georgian
·  In France: Louis XV
·  In America: Early Georgian
 
Furniture Period -  Kent
 Furniture Makers and Designers
·  Daniel Marot
·  William Kent
·  Jacques Dubois
·  Gillows furniture makers
·  Thomas Chippendale
·  Thomas Elfe
·  J. Baumhauer
·  George Seddon
·  Townsend-Goddard
·  Georges Jacob
·  Renee Dubois
 Design Influence -  Rococo
 Timbers - Ash, Beech, Cherry, Chestnut, Kingwood and Tulipwood, Mahogany,
Oak,  Satinwood, Walnut, Yew
 Other Materials - Gilding, Wood caster held by iron plate
 Decoration Details
·  "C" and "S" scrolls: carving shaped as letters
·  Anthemion: stylized flower of leaf design like honeysuckle
 
 
1750-1760
British Monarch -   George II
 Royal Period in Britain -   Georgian
 Antique Period
·  In England: Georgian
·  In France: Louis XV
·  In America: Chippendale
 Furniture Period -   Chippendale
 Furniture Makers and Designers
·  Daniel Marot
·  Jacques Dubois
·  Gillows furniture makers
·  Thomas Chippendale
·  Thomas Elfe
·  J. Baumhauer
·  George Seddon
·  Townsend-Goddard
·  Georges Jacob
·  Renee Dubois
·  Thomas Sheraton: UK designer
·  Ince and Mayhew: UK furniture makers
·  Vile and Cobb: UK
 Design Influence -  Neo-classical: imitation of surviving classical models,
Gophic revival
 Timbers -  Ash, Beech, Cherry, Chestnut, Kingwood and Tulipwood, Mahogany,
Oak, Satinwood, Walnut, Yew
 Design Introductions (Approximate)
·  Highboy: America
·  Butlers tray
·  Tripod table
·  Sawbuck table: Pensylvania Dutch
 Other Materials - Gilding,  Wood caster held by iron plate, Papier Mache:
UK
 
 
 
1760-1770
British Monarch -  George III (since 1760)
Royal Period in Britain -  Georgian
 Antique Period
·  In England: Georgian
·  In France: Louis XV
·  In America: Chippendale
 Furniture Period -  Chippendale
 Furniture Makers and Designers
·  Jacques Dubois
·  Gillows furniture makers
·  Thomas Chippendale
·  Thomas Elfe
·  J. Baumhauer
·  George Seddon
·  Townsend-Goddard
·  Georges Jacob
·  Renee Dubois
·  Thomas Sheraton
·  Ince and Mayhew
·  Vile and Cobb
·  Rob Adam: UK
 Design Influence - Neo-classical, Rococo revival, Chinoiserie revival
 Timbers -  Ash, Beech, Cherry, Chestnut, Coromandel: veneer, Kingwood
and,Tulipwood, Mahogany, Oak, Satinwood, Walnut, Yew
 Design Introductions (Approximate) - Davenport desk, Settee,  Sofa table
 Other Materials - Lacquer, Gilding, Cast iron caster
 
 
1770-1780
British Monarch - George III
Royal Period in Britain -  Georgian
Antique Period
·  In England: Georgian
·  In France: Louis XVI (since 1774)
·  In America: Chippendale
Furniture Period -   Adam, Hepplewhite
Furniture Makers and Designers
·  Gillows furniture makers
·  Thomas Chippendale
·  Thomas Elfe
·  J. Baumhauer
·  George Seddon
·  Townsend-Goddard
·  Georges Jacob
·  Renee Dubois
·  Thomas Sheraton
·  Ince and Mayhew
·  Rob Adam
·  Duncan Phyfe (since 1783): America
·  Thomas Hope: UK designer
·  Jacob and Honore: France
·  Shaker: Religious community in New York, America
Design Influence -   Neo-classical, Rococo revival, Chinoiserie revival
Timbers - Ash, Beech, Cherry, Chestnut, Coromandel, Kingwood andTulipwood,
Mahogany,  Oak, Satinwood, Walnut, Yew
Design Introductions (Approximate)
·  Bureau bookcase
·  Cellaret
·  D-ended Dining table
·  Giltwood screen
Other Materials -  Brass caster with laminated leather caster
Decoration Details - Acanthus: stylized leaf carving, Marquetry: in all
woods other than walnut
 
1780-1790
British Monarch -  George III
Royal Period in Britain -  Georgian,  Regency (since 1780)
Antique Period - In England: Regency,  In France: Louis XVI, In America:
Chippendale
Furniture Period -  Hepplewhite
Furniture Makers and Designers
·  Gillows furniture makers
·  Thomas Elfe
·  George Seddon
·  Townsend-Goddard
·  Georges Jacob
·  Renee Dubois
·  Thomas Sheraton
·  Ince and Mayhew
·  Rob Adam
·  Duncan Phyfe
·  Thomas Hope
·  Jacob and Honore
·  Shaker
·  Hepplewhite: UK
·  Hepplewhite style: America
·  Jean Guillaume Beneman: ebeniste to Louis XVI, France
Design Influence -Neo-classical, Chinoiserie revival
Timbers - Ash, Beech, Cherry, Chestnut, Coromandel, Kingwood and Tulipwood,
Mahogany, Oak, Rosewood: veneer, Satinwood, Walnut, Yew
Design Introductions (Approximate) - Whatnot, Linen press, Corner cupboard,
Night commode, Commode, Sabre leg chair, Teaboy, Wine cooler
Other Materials - Solid brass caster
Decoration Details - Tulipwood and kingwood cross banding
 
 
1790-1800
British Monarch - George III
Royal Period in Britain - Georgian, Regency
Antique Period
·  In England: Regency
·  In France: Directoire (since 1793), Empire (since 1799)
·  In America: Federal (since 1790)
Furniture Period - Sheraton
Furniture Makers and Designers
·  Gillows furniture makers
·  Thomas Elfe
·  George Seddon
·  Georges Jacob
·  Renee Dubois
·  Thomas Sheraton
·  Ince and Mayhew
·  Duncan Phyfe
·  Thomas Hope
·  Jacob and Honore
·  Shaker
·  Hepplewhite
·  Hepplewhite style
·  Jean Guillaume Beneman
·  Thos Shearer: UK
·  Hitchcock: chairs, America
·  Chauncey Jerome: clock cases, America
Design Influence - Neo-classical, Regency
Timbers -  Ash, Beech, Cherry: infrequently used, sometimes as veneer,
Chestnut, Coromandel, Kingwood and Tulipwood, Mahogany, Oak, Rosewood,
Satinwood, Walnut, Yew
Design Introductions (Approximate)
·  Pedestal dining table
·  Sideboard
·  Canterbury
·  Sofa table
·  Bow-fronted chest
·  Serving table
Other Materials - Gilding, Circular saw invented
 
1800-1810
British Monarch - George III
Royal Period in Britain -  Georgian, Regency
Antique Period
·  In England: Regency
·  In France: Empire
·  In America: Federal
Furniture Period -  Sheraton
Furniture Makers and Designers
·  Gillows furniture makers
·  Georges Jacob
·  Thomas Sheraton
·  Ince and Mayhew
·  Duncan Phyfe
·  Thomas Hope
·  Jacob and Honore
·  Shaker
·  Jean Guillaume Beneman
·  Hitchcock
·  Chauncey Jerome
·  George Smith: Regency style, UK
Design Influence
·  Gothic revival
·  Egyptian: copies of Egyptian design
·  Empire: Napoleonic
·  Regency
Timbers
·  Beech
·  Birch: solid, lacquered furniture and fake papier mache
·  Cherry
·  Coromandel
·  Elm: English Windsor chairs
·  Mahogany
·  Oak
·  Pine: popular for country furniture in England and America
·  Rosewood
·  Walnut
·  Yew
Design Introductions (Approximate)
·  Nest of tables
·  Chiffonier: French
·  Banjo clock
·  Spinning wheel
·  Secretaire
·  Loo table: for game of Lanterloo
Other Materials
·  Lacquer
·  Gilding
Decoration Details
·  Sphinx heads and stars
·  Greek key pattern revival
 
 
1810-1820
British Monarch -  George III
Royal Period in Britain -   Georgian, Regency
Antique Period
·  In England: Regency
·  In France: Restauration (since 1815)
·  In America: Federal
Furniture Period - Hope
Furniture Makers and Designers
·  Gillows furniture makers
·  Georges Jacob
·  Duncan Phyfe
·  Thomas Hope
·  Jacob and Honore
·  Shaker
·  Hitchcock
·  Chauncey Jerome
·  George Smith
·  Auguste Pugin: Gothic revival, UK architect
·  Jennens and Bettridge: papier mache furniture, UK
Design Influence - Gothic revival, Egyptian,  Empire, Regency
Timbers -  Beech, Birch, Cherry, Coromandel, Elm, Mahogany, Oak,  Pine,
Rosewood, Walnut, Yew
Design Introductions (Approximate)
·  Hallstand
·  Windsor chair
·  Credenza revival
·  Sutherland table
·  Worktable
·  Drum table
·  Breakfront desk
Other Materials - Lacquer, Gilding
Decoration Details - Ebony black line inlay
 
1820-1830
British Monarch -  George IV (since 1820)
Royal Period in Britain -  Georgian, Regency
Antique Period
·  In England: Regency
·  In France: Restauration
·  In America: Federal
Furniture Period - Hope
Furniture Makers and Designers
·  Gillows furniture makers
·  Duncan Phyfe
·  Thomas Hope
·  Jacob and Honore
·  Shaker
·  Hitchcock
·  Chauncey Jerome
·  George Smith
·  Auguste Pugin
·  Jennens and Bettridge
·  John Taylor: UK furniture maker
Design Influence - Gothic revival, Regency
Timbers - Beech, Birch, Cherry, Coromandel, Elm, Mahogany, Oak, Pine
,Rosewood, Walnut, Yew
Design Introductions (Approximate) - Biedermeier chest: German, Writing
table
 
1830-1840
 British Monarch -  William IV (since 1830), Victoria (since 1837)
Royal Period in Britain -  Victorian
Antique Period
·  In England: William IV (since 1830), Victorian (since 1837)
·  In France: Louis Philippe (since 1830)
·  In America: Victorian (since 1837)
Furniture Makers and Designers
·  Duncan Phyfe
·  Thomas Hope
·  Jacob and Honore
·  Shaker
·  Chauncey Jerome
·  Auguste Pugin
·  Jennens and Bettridge
·  William Morris: UK
Design Influence -  Revival: copies of past styles, etc., Louis Philippe:
copies of Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque
Timbers - Beech, Birch, Cherry, Coromandel, Elm, Mahogany, Oak, Pine,
walnut, Yew
Design Introductions (Approximate) - Carved hall chair, Etagere, Pedestal
desk
Other Materials - Papier mache: America
 

1840-1850
British Monarch - Victoria
Royal Period in Britain - Victorian
Antique Period
·  In England: Victorian
·  In France: Second Empire (since 1848)
·  In America: Victorian
Furniture Makers and Designers
·  Duncan Phyfe
·  Shaker
·  Chauncey Jerome
·  Auguste Pugin
·  Jennens and Bettridge
·  William Morris
·  John Belter: New York, America
Design Influence - Revival, Louis Philippe
Timbers - Beech, Birch, Cherry, Elm, Mahogany, Oak, Pine, Walnut, Yew
Design Introductions (Approximate) - Boston rocker: American, Wellington
chest
Other Materials -  Papier mache
 
1850-1860
British Monarch - Victoria
Royal Period in Britain  -  Victorian
Antique Period
·  In England: Victorian
·  In France: Second Empire
·  In America: Victorian
Furniture Makers and Designers
·  Duncan Phyfe
·  Shaker
·  Chauncey Jerome
·  Auguste Pugin
·  Jennens and Bettridge
·  William Morris
·  John Belter
Design Influence - Revival
Timbers - Beech, Birch, Cherry, Elm, Mahogany: mainly veneer, Oak, Pine,
Walnut, Yew
Design Introductions (Approximate) -   Ladies work table, Balloon back
chair, oston rocker, Whatnot
Other Materials -  Papier mache, Gilding
 
 
1860-1870
British Monarch -  Victoria
Royal Period in Britain -   Victorian
Antique Period
·  In England: Victorian
·  In France: Second Empire
·  In America: Victorian
Furniture Makers and Designers
·  Shaker
·  Chauncey Jerome
·  Jennens and Bettridge
·  William Morris
Design Influence -   Revival
Timbers -  Beech, Birch, Cherry, Elm, Mahogany, Oak, Pine, Walnut, Yew
Design Introductions (Approximate) - Toilet table
Other Materials - Gilding, Papier mache, Ebonised beechwood
 
 
1870-1880
 British Monarch - Victoria
Royal Period in Britain - Victorian
Antique Period
·  In England: Victorian
·  In France: Third Republic (since 1870)
·  In America: Victorian
Furniture Makers and Designers - Shaker, William Morris
Design Influence - Revival
Timbers -  Beech, Birch, Cherry,  Elm,  Mahogany,  Oak,  Pine,  Walnut,  Yew
Other Materials - Gilding,  Papier mache,  Ebonised beechwood
 
1880-1890
 British Monarch -  Victoria
Royal Period in Britain - Victorian
Antique Period
·  In England: Victorian
·  In France: Third Republic
·  In America: Victorian
Furniture Makers and Designers - Shaker, William Morris
Design Influence - Revival
Timbers - Beech, Birch,Cherry, Elm: sometimes used for reproduction
furniture, Mahogany, Oak, Pine, Walnut, Yew: reproductions in veneer
Other Materials - Ebonised beechwood
 
1890-1900
 British Monarch - Victoria
Royal Period in Britain -   Victorian
Antique Period
·  In England: Victorian
·  In France: Third Republic
·  In America: Victorian
Furniture Makers and Designers - William Morris
Timbers - Beech, Birch, Cherry, Elm, Mahogany, Oak, Pine, Walnut, Yew
 
 
 
1900-1910
British Monarch - Victoria, Edward VII (since 1901)
Royal Period in Britain - Victorian, Edwardian (since 1901)
Antique Period
·  In England: Edwardian
·  In France: Third Republic
·  In America: Arte Nouveau (since 1901)
Design Influence - Arte Nouveau: swelling sinuous outlines and stylized
natural forms of flowers etc.
Timbers - Beech, Birch, Cherry, Elm, Mahogany, Oak, Pine, Walnut, Yew
 
1910-1920
British Monarch - George V (since 1910)
Royal Period in Britain -  House of Windsor
Antique Period
·  In England: House of Windsor
·  In France: Third Republic
·  In America: Arte Nouveau
Design Influence - Arte Nouveau
Timbers - Beech, Birch, Cherry, Elm, Mahogany, Oak, Pine, Walnut, Yew
Other Materials - Lacquer
 
 
1920-1930
British Monarch - George V
Royal Period in Britain -   House of Windsor
Antique Period - In England: House of Windsor, In France: Third Republic, In
America: -
Design Influence - Arte Nouveau, Arte Deco: geometric shapes, stylized
natural forms and designs applicable to mass production
Timbers -  Beech, Birch, Cherry, Elm, Mahogany, Oak, Pine, Walnut, Yew
Other Materials -  Lacquer
 
 
1930-1940
British Monarch - George V, Edward VIII (since 1936), George VI (since 1936)
Royal Period in Britain -  House of Windsor
Antique Period -  In England: House of Windsor, In France: Third Republic,
Design Influence -   Arte Deco
Timbers - Beech, Birch, Cherry, Elm, Mahogany, Oak, Pine, Walnut, Yew
Other Materials -  Lacquer
 
 
1940-1950
British Monarch - George VI
Royal Period in Britain -  House of Windsor
Design Influence -  Arte Deco
Timbers -  Beech, Birch, Cherry, Elm, Mahogany, Oak, Pine, Walnut, Yew
Other Materials -  Lacquer
 
 
1950-1960
British Monarch - George VI (until 1952)
Royal Period in Britain -  House of Windsor
Antique Period - In England: House of Windsor
Timbers -  Beech, Birch, Cherry, Elm, Mahogany, Oak, Pine, Walnut, Yew